::Tarbiyya 2::

His methodology of presenting Tawheed as Tarbiyya

Tareeq alHijratayn wa Ba’d Sa’aadatayn (The path of the two hijrahs and afterwards two happinesses)

Hadith: “The true immigrant is the one who immigrates from sin to righteousness (to Allah and His Messenger)”

Hijratayn:

  • Migration to Allah through
  • Love – ‘uboodiyyah
  • Tawakkul – reliance
  • Inabah – repentance
  • Tasleem – submission
  • Taqweed – giving up of affairs
  • Raja – Hope
  • Khawf – Fear
  • Iqbaal ‘alayh – turning to Allah
  • Iftiqaab – Sincerity to show your need to Allah

Migration to the Messenger of Allah salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

  • From your lifestyle to his
  • His movements
  • His actions
  • The subtle matters of his life, shown and hidden
  • Living according to the Shar’iah, no example better than him
  • Everything that you do in following the Prophet will be provisions for the hereafter (Za’d ulMa’ad)

Tawheed The oneness of Allah ‘azza wa jal

Said that the true meaning of tawheed was to realize your excessive and extreme need to Allah

You need him in everything, all your affairs

If you just submit to that fact, then you know you need no one except Him

“O Mankind! You are in poverty/need to Allah, and Allah is the One Who is rich” – this is the first chapter his book

  • Faqr – poverty/need
  • Ikhtiyaari – by choice
  • Idtiraari – by force

Even if someone is rich in material life, in reality you are poor. If you accept that you are in need of Allah, you get to that high level of Tawheed

Example of Prophet

He showed the good example, uswatun hasanah.

The one who is perfect among mankind is the one who is perfect in his worship to Allah –

The Prophet said in his du’a: “My Lord, amend all my affairs, and do not leave these affairs in my hand, even the blink of an eye.”

Used to teach his companions alIstikhaarah all the time, the same way he would teach them Qur’an. Taught reliance and need to Allah.Prophet’s du’a: “O changer of hearts, keep my heart fixed on your path” – even though his sins were forgiven, he showed that need and reliance on Allah, and complete submission to him.

Asmaa’ wasSifaat

This became an issue of debate

Ibn alQayyim gave the Asmaa’ wasSifaat a new dimension: attachment and point of view of heart

When you use the Names of Allah, all of them should serve the purpose of bringing you closer to Allah

Example: If you believe Allah is alAwwal and alAakhir, you will rely on Him Alone, the who transcends even time

Example: If you believe Allah is All-Hearing, if it doesn’t affect your actions and words to make them pure and good all the time, then understanding his Name doesn’t matter to you

Example of ‘Aisha: in Surah alMujaadalah, Allah reveals the words of adDhihaar. When ‘Aisha saw this, she said Praise be to Allah, the Hearer of all things. I’m in one of the corners of this house, and I hear some of this woman’s speech and don’t hear all of it. But Allah Hears All (“qad samee’ Allah…”)

atTahaakum ilAllah(Judgment by the Will of Allah)

Whether in public or alone, know they will be judged by Allah for everything

atTahaakum li ghayri Allah = atTahaakum bitTaaghoot

Against bid’ah: If Allah had not ordained an action for you, and you perform it as ‘ibadah, then this must be from a false diety you are obeying. This is worse than a sin, because at least in a sin, you will repent for it.Why don’t people repent for a bid’ah? Because everyone who brings a bid’ah believes that innovation is something good. People know that a sin is bad, but don’t realize!!There are types of bid’ah: sinful bid’ah, and bid’ah that leads to kufr!

Ittiba’ of the Prophet

To follow the example of the Prophet sincerely, because following his example links back to Tawheed of Allah (Tawheed fil ittiba’ an-nabi)

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘If you claim you love Allah, then follow me…’” (aali’Imran)

Enslavement with love – servitude is a result of love of Allah. How do we serve? By following the Prophet salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.Those who claim that they don’t have to follow the Sunnah, and can follow their logic/reason, etc… he attacks this ideology and refutes it!You cannot achieve his love without servitude in the best manner, and the best manner was shown to us in the life of the Prophet,Following the Sunnah is part of Tawheed!

Any work that doesn’t have the example of the Prophet is your own desires. You are following the desires of your nafs.

Happiness in this life and the hereafter is all by following the Prophet

It is mandatory for all the mujahirs to Allah to put every second and every breath in achieving that by having the knowledge of the Prophet’s sunnah

Those who know more about the Prophet’s life, they will be more following of the way of the Prophet, and thus they will be closer to the Tawheed of Allah

The philosophers separated the sciences of ‘aqeedah and fiqh, different rules and principles.

For Ibn alQayyim, the sciences were intertwined and inseparable, because the rules of actions were strongly linked with rules of ‘aqeedah.Brings the details of the Prophet’s description and even food!

Story of Anas: Prophet chasing the pieces of squash/pumpkin and loving to eat them. Anas, after this, always loved pumpkin, because of his love for the Prophet

Details of his garments – wore a coat from ashShaam. He showed he was a human being like anyone else, wearing fashionable garments.

If you learn these details, you will learn to remember the Prophet in every moment of your life 😀

Warning against Taqleed

Ittiba’ vs taqleed

Ittiba’ is tareeq al-wasat: the middle way

One extreme: following someone besides the Prophet uncritically

Other extreme: complete leaving of practice and following anyone

Showed the value of evidence from Qur’an and Sunnah, over blind following!

Division of people of taqleed:

*Some people completely negate Sunnah and take the examples of their fathers/forefathers as sufficient

*Some follow people who have little to no knowledge at all, who know something and suddenly becomes the grand mufti among the people

*Some people recognize that the Sunnah says this and this, and they acknowledge they should follow it, but say that sticking to the madhab is better.

Warning against Taqleed

As for those people who don’t have knowledge, cannot understand evidence, cannot find a qualified people to teach them, then they should follow some scholarship blindly. But these are the conditions of this taqleed.

If someone doesn’t fall into the above category, then cannot blindly follow. Otherwise, it becomes shirk fil tawheed al-ittiba’ an-nabi

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::Tarbiyya::

This course was originally taught by shaykh yasir Birjas in Ilm summit 2009…….and is based on the work of ibn qayim- I shall post small notes from the class. Inshallah hope people benefit from it!

Tarbiyya of Ibn alQayyim alJawziyyah

What we will be studying:

  • The nature of human beings from a psychological and spiritual perspective
  • The concept of Tawheed
  • The subject of al-‘itiba
  • Focusing on the hearts.

Imam ashShawkani wrote about him: “He was a mujtahid mutlaq.  He acquired all the tools to become an independent mujtahid.  He was an expert in the Hanbali school and followed it.”

  • His life
  • What the scholars said about him
  • His great teacher & books
  • His methodology on tarbiyya

we will start of with his life

Ibn alQayyim alJawziyyah born in 691 AH (1292 CE) • Real name was Abu ‘Abdillah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub al-Dimishqee

•Qayyim is a superintendant and Al Jawziyyah was a Hanbali school in Syria. •His father was one of leader of Hanbali fiqh

What the scholars said about him?

•Ibn Rajab wrote about him: “he had the upper hand in human psychology and behavior and mysticism and tasawwuf (Sufism – but they had a different interpretation of this).

•Ibn Rajab said that he loved knowledge, reading, writing, and collecting books. They had never seen anyone with a library as large as his.” –He grew up in the culture of his time, which was mostly about Sufism, and so he learned so much about it

Ibn Rajab said that he was very famous for his tahajjud and qiyam al-layl. When he prays, he makes his salah very long, even his sujood and ruku’. Some of his friends and companions complained and said that was too much, he wouldn’t listen to them. He had that love for Allah and always remembered Allah ‘azza wa jal.

His level of ‘uboodiyyah (subservience and worship) to Allah was exceptional. Even when he was in prison, his time was spent in reading the Book of Allah, thinking about it, meditating, contemplating.

Shaykh Yaser said that out of the contemporary scholars, he’s seen Shaykh bin Baz also engrossed in dhikr like this. Even during answering questions of people coming to him.

His great teacher & books

Shaykh ulIslam Ibn Taymiyyah was his Companionship for 16 years until Ibn Taymiyyah died 728 AH (1329 CE)

Ibn Al Qayyim was one of the greatest supporters of Ibn Taymiyyah and was even with him in jail. When Ibn Taymiyyah died, they released Ibn Al Qayyim. They were in jail because of fiqh issues. Of the most popular fatwas that caused Ibn Al Qayyim to be in prison: you are not allowed to undertake a journey to go to Al Khalil visit the grave of Ibrahim (alayhi salaam) in Palestine.

His books – vastly different from style of his teacher!

Ibn Taymiyyah was an intellectual tank, writing to appeal to the mind.Ibn alQayyim was a spiritual tank, appealing to the hearts of the people.

His methodology in Tarbiya

All his writing revolve around axes:

The human being – who are you as a human being, from a spiritual and psychological perspective.

Famous books:

  • Madaarij usSaalikeen
  • Za’d alMa’ad fi hadyi khayril ‘ibaad
  • Rawdatul Muhibbeen
  • Ighadtul ahfan
  • The Prepration of the Thankful and the Ammunition of the Patient Ones

Reality of Iman~5

Levels of Iman

1st Level: this is the minimal level of ῑmān acceptable to Allah: Evidence for this: Surah Yusuf v. 106  and  Surah Al Hujurat

2nd Level: Al ῑmān al mutlaq. The minimal level required by Allah. This is also called in Arabic: al ῑmān al waajib.

3rd Level: Higher Level: Al ῑmān al kamil = perfection of ῑmān.

Any time the Quran or Sunnah negates ῑmān from a Muslim, it is negating al ῑmān al mutlaq and not mutlaq al ῑmān.

Sahih Bukhari: The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) swore three times and said, “Woe to the one whose neighbor does not feel safe.” This does not make the person a kafir, but the person does not have al ῑmān al mutlaq

Higher Level: Al ῑmān al kamil = perfection of ῑmān.

There is no limit to the perfection of ῑmān, and the Prophet(sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) is the perfection of humanity but not of the limit.

Reality of Iman ~4

Increase and Decrease of ῑmān

Quran:

“The believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, their hearts tremble, and when His verses are recited to them, their ῑmān increases…” [Al Anfal: 2]

Hadeeth proving ῑmān goes up and down:

“I have never seen any with lesser ‘aql and religion that [still] manages to cause a smart man’s intelligence to disappear… Does she not leave prayer in her menses? So that is her deficiency in her religion.” [Al Bukhari]

and also….

“The one who fornicates does not fornicate as a mu’min; the one who steals does not steal as a mu’min, the one who drinks does not drink as a mu’min.” [Al Bukhari]

“Whoever amongst you is able to change an evil with his hand, let him do so, and if not, then with his tongue, and if not, then with his heart, and that is the weakest ῑmān.” [Ahmad]

and finally….

“While I was sleeping, I saw (in a dream) some people wearing shirts of which some were reaching up to the chests only while others were even shorter than that, Umar ibn Al Khattab was shown wearing a shirt that he was dragging.” The people asked, “How did you interpret it, Oh Allah’s Apostle?” He replied, “The religion.” [Al Bukhari]

All the traditions that mention people will be removed from the Fire in batches, depending on their level of ῑmān. First people with a coin’s weight of ῑmān, then a twig / leaf of  ῑmān, then a mustard seed / atom’s weight of ῑmān (smallest amount) from the Hellfire.

Imam Malik’s position?

In all of the verses cited above, Allah only mentions ῑmān increasing. he was following the letter of the Quran. —It is common sense that if he says ῑmān goes up, then he would be quiet and stop. Everything that goes up must go down because the very fact that it goes up means that it was down in the first place. He would not say that ῑmān goes down, so he would say ῑmān goes up and stop. It does not mean he denied it goes down, but he wanted to avoid the controversy of discussing ῑmān decreasing and going to nothing.

Ibn Taymiyyah’s?

  ῑmān increases and decreases…..

The details of what believers have been commanded varied from time to place. This is true not just of different Shari’ahs but also early vs. middle vs. late Islam. The earlier Muslims did not have as many commands, which causes an increase in ῑmān because it was being built up.

2.  The level of commitment and action that believers undertake.

3.  Actual affirmation of truth is in fact of various levels. Even belief is of levels, meaning that people do not believe the same. It is possible that a person may have more belief that the Prophet (SAW) came with

The best example

Al Isra wa Al Miraj. By and large, they believed it but not like Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr was called As Sideeq because of his level of belief. Ibn Taymiyyah says it is human nature and someone’s mother will believe him more than a stranger.

Another example: The Prophet (SAW) said, “The one who hears is not like the one who sees.” This means that seeing is more believing. Ibn Taymiyyah mentioned the incident of when Allah told Musa that his people had taken a golden calf ……

4. Detailed knowledge of a matter adds levels of perception and certainty that summarized knowledge does not. Detailed knowledge brings about a type of ῑmān.

5. A belief that causes one to act upon it is necessarily stronger than a belief that does not cause any action. We all know khamr is haraam, but some fall short.

6. The actions of the heart, which are an integral part of ῑmān, vary widely between people. The level piety in prayer varies.

7. The outward actions vary widely between people. Some people pray tahajjud and others do not. Some fast Mondays and Thursdays and others do not.

8.  States of ghafla are more frequent for some than others. It is only the few and elite who have eliminated ghafla (heedlessness). The Prophet (SAW) praised those who worship Allah as though they see Him. They do not have any heedlessness. One of the tabi’oon said: ‘When we remember Allah and glorify and praise Him, it is our increasing of ῑmān.’

9. It is possible that a matter or belief is denied because of ignorance, and when someone learns of its truth, he accepts it.

:.Sisters know your role models- Umm Sulaym.:

Even before Islam was introduced to Yathrib, Rumaysa was known for her excellent character, the power of her intellect and her independent attitude of mind. She was known by various names including Rumaysa and Ghumaysa, but these were possibly nicknames. One historian says that her real name was Sahlah but later she was popularly known as Umm Sulaym.

Umm Sulaym was first married to Malik ibn an-Nadr and her son by this marriage was the famous Anas ibn Malik, one of the great companions of the Prophet.

Umm Sulaym was one of the first women of Yathrib to accept Islam. She was influenced by the refined, dedicated and persuasive Musab ibn Umayr who was sent out as the first missionary or ambassador of Islam by the noble Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace . This was after the first pledge of Aqabah. Twelve men of Yathrib had gone to Aqabah on the outskirts of Makkah to pledge loyalty to the Prophet. This was the first major break through for the mission of the Prophet for many years.

Umm Sulaym’s decision to accept Islam was made without the knowledge or consent of her husband, Malik ibn an-Nadr. He was absent from Yathrib at the time and when he returned he felt some change had come over his household and asked his wife: “Have you been rejuvenated?” “No,” she said, “but I (now) believe in this man (meaning the Prophet Muhammad).”

Malik was not pleased especially when his wife went on to announce her acceptance of Islam in public and instruct her son Anas in the teachings and practice of the new faith. She taught him to say la ilaha ilia Allah and Ash hadu anna Muhammada-r Rasulullah. The young Anas repeated this simple but profound declaration of faith clearly and emphatically.

Umm Sulaym’s husband was now furious. He shouted at her: “Don’t corrupt my son.” “I am not corrupting him ,” she replied firmly.

Her husband then left the house and it is reported that he was set upon by an enemy of his and was killed. The news shocked but apparently did not upset Umm Sulaym greatly. She remained devoted to her son Anas and was concerned about his. proper upbringing. She is even reported to have said that she would not marry again unless Anas approved.

When it was known that Umm Sulaym had become a widow, one man, Zayd ibn Sahl, known as Abu Talhah, resolved to become engaged to her before anyone else did.

He was rather confident that Umm Sulaym would not pass him over for another. He was after all a strong and virile person who was quite rich and who possessed an imposing house that was much admired. He was an accomplished horseman and a skilful archer and, moreover, he belonged to the same clan as Umm Sulaym, the Banu Najjar.

Abu Talhah proceeded to Umm Sulaym’s house. On the way he recalled that she had been influenced by the preaching of Musab ibn Umayr and had become a Muslim.

“So what?” he said to himself. “Was not her husband who died a firm adherent of the old religion and was he not opposed to Muhammad and his mission?”

Abu Talhah reached Umm Sulaym’s house. He asked and was given permission to enter. Her son Anas was present. Abu Talhah explained why he had come and asked for her hand in marriage.

“A man like you, Abu Talhah ,” she said, “is not (easily) turned away. But I shall never marry you while you are a kafir, an unbeliever.”

Abu Talhah thought she was trying to put him off and that perhaps she had already preferred someone wealthier and more influential. He said to her:

“What is it that really prevents you from accepting me, Umm Sulaym? Is it the yellow and the white metals (gold and silver)?”

“Gold and silver?” she asked somewhat taken aback and in a slightly censuring tone. “Yes,” he said. “I swear to you, Abu Talhah, and I swear to Allah and His Messenger that if you accept Islam, I shall be pleased to accept you as a husband, without any gold or silver. I shall consider your acceptance of Islam as my mahr.”

Abu Talhah understood well the implications of her words. His mind turned to the idol he had made from wood and on which he lavished great attention in the same way that important men of his tribe venerated and cared for their personal idols.

The opportunity was right for Umm Sulaym to stress the futility of such idol worship and she went on: “Don’t you know Abu Talhah, that the god you worship besides Allah grew from the earth?” ..”That’s true,” he said.

“Don’t you feel stupid while worshipping part of a tree while you use the rest of it for fuel to bake bread or warm yourself? (If you should give up these foolish beliefs and practices) and become a Muslim, Abu Talhah, I shall be pleased to accept you as a husband and I would not want from you any sadaqah apart from your acceptance of Islam.”

“Who shall instruct me in Islam?” asked Abu Talhah. “I shall,” Umm Sulaym replied. “How?”

“Utter the declaration of truth and testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Then go to your house, destroy your idol and throw it away.”

Abu Talhah left and reflected deeply on what Umm Sulaym had said. He came back to her beaming with happiness.

“I have taken your advice to heart. I declare that there is no god but Allah and I declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

Umm Sulaym and Abu Talhah were married. Anas, her son, was pleased and the Muslims would say: “We have never yet heard of a mahr that was more valuable and precious than that of Umm Sulaym for she made Islam her mahr.”

Umm Sulaym was pleased and delighted with her new husband who placed his unique energies and talents in the service of Islam. He was one of the seventy three men who swore allegiance to the Prophet at the second Pledge of Aqabah. With him, according to one report, was his wife Umm Sulaym. Two other women, the celebrated Nusaybah bint Kab and Asma bint Amr witnessed Aqabah and took the oath of allegiance to the Prophet.

Abu Talhah was devoted to the Prophet and took enormous delight in simply looking at him and listening to the sweetness of his speech. He participated in all the major military campaigns. He lived a very ascetic life and was known to fast for long periods at a time. It is said that he had a fantastic orchard in Madinah with date palms and grapes and running water.

One day while he was performing Salat in the shade of the trees, a beautiful bird with brightly colored plumage flew in front of him. He became engrossed in the scene and forgot how many rakats he had prayed. Two? Three? When he completed the Prayer he went to the Prophet and described how he had been distracted. In the end, he said: “Bear witness, Messenger of Allah, that I hand over this orchard as a charity for the sake of Allah, the Exalted.”

Abu Talhah and Umm Sulaym had an exemplary Muslim family life, devoted to the Prophet and the service of Muslims and Islam. The Prophet used to visit their home. Sometimes when the time of Prayer came, he would pray on a mat provided by Umm Sulaym. Sometimes also he would have a siesta in their house and, as he slept, she would wipe the perspiration from his forehead. Once when the Prophet awoke from his siesta, he asked: “Umm Sulaym, what are you doing?” “I am taking these (drops of perspiration) as a barakah (blessing) which comes from you ,” she replied.

At another time, the Prophet went to their house and Umm Sulaym offered him dates and butterfat but he did not have any of it because he was fasting. Occasionally, she would send her son Anas with bags of dates to his house.

It was noticed that the Prophet, peace be on him, had a special compassion for Umm Sulaym and her family and when asked about it, he replied: “Her brother was killed beside me.”

Umm Sulaym also had a well-known sister, Umm Haram, the wife of the imposing Ubadah ibn as-Samit. She died at sea during a naval expedition and was buried in Cyprus. Umm Sulaym’s husband, Abu Talhah, also died while he was on a naval expedition during the time of the third Caliph, Uthman, and was buried at sea.

Umm Sulaym herself was noted for her great courage and bravery. During the Battle of Uhud, she carried a dagger in the folds of her dress. She gave water to and tended the wounded and she made attempts to defend the Prophet when the tide of battle was turning against him. At the Battle of Khandaq, the Prophet saw her carrying a dagger and he asked her what she was doing with it. She said: “It is to fight those who desert.”

“May Allah grant you satisfaction in that,” replied the Prophet.

In the face of adversity, Umm Sulaym displayed a unique calmness and strength. One of her young sons (Umayr) fell sick and died while her husband was away looking after his orchards. She bathed the child and wrapped him in shrouds. She told others at her home that they should not inform Abu Talhah because she herself wanted to tell him. Anas ibn Malik said, “A son of Abu Talha became ill. Abu Talha went out and the child died. When Abu Talha returned, he asked, ‘How is my son?’ Umm Sulaym said, “He is calmer now than he has ever been.’ She brought him supper and he ate and then he had sex with her. When he finished, she said, ‘Bury the child.’

“In the morning Abu Talha went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him. He asked, ‘Did you have relations with your wife last night?’ ‘Yes,’ he answered. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘O Allah, bless them!’ and she ater had a baby boy.

A few days after she gave birth, she sent Anas with the baby and a bag of dates to the Prophet. The Prophet placed the baby on his lap. He crushed the dates in his mouth and put some in the baby’s mouth. The baby sucked the dates with relish and the Prophet said: “The Ansar are only fond of dates.” The prophet named him `Abdullah.

Abdullah eventually grew up and had seven children all of whom memorized the Quran.

Umm Sulaym was a model Muslim, a model wife and mother. Her belief in Allah was strong and uncompromising. She was not prepared to endanger her faith and the upbringing of her children for wealth and luxury, however abundant and tempting.

She was devoted to the Prophet and dedicated her son Anas to his service. She took the responsibility of educating her children and she played an active part in public life, sharing with the other Muslims the hardships and the joys of building a community and living for the pleasure of Allah.

:.Reality of Iman-3.:

  Relationship Between ῑmān and Islam?

 The early scholars of our religion differed amongst themselves to some degree.

Example of a dark room: the room is enveloped in darkness and there is a straight path to go on to get to the door. The first scholars come in with flashlights and are searching, and then more scholars come and eventually the room is lit up.

  Methodology and Ikhtilaaf?

 Last verses of Hujurat: Allah talks about the bedouins who say that they have ῑmān. Allah denies ῑmān from them. ‘Say you have accepted Islam. ῑmān has not yet entered your hearts. If you obey Allah and His Messenger, then your actions will not go to vain.’ There is a distinction. The true believers believe in Allah and His Messenger and then they strive.

 On the authority of Umar also who said: ‘One day while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), there came before us a man with extremely white clothing and extremely black hair. There were no signs of travel on him and none of knew him. He [came and] sat next to the Prophet (pbuh). He supported his knees up against the knees of the Prophet (pbuh) and put his hands on his thighs.   He said, ‘O Muhammad, tell me about Islam.’ The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: “Islam is to testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to establish prayers, to pay the zakat, to fast [the month of] Ramadhaan, and to make the pilgrimage to the house if you have the means to do so.” He said, ‘You have spoken truthfully [or correctly].’ We were amazed that he asks the question and then he says that he had spoken truthfully.   ………………..Then he went away. I stayed for a long time. Then he [the Prophet (pbuh)] said, “O Umar, do you know who the questioner was?” I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger knows best.’ He said, “It was [the Angle] Gabriel who came to teach you your religion.” [Recorded by Muslim]

  Hadith of the ‘Delegation of Abd al-Qays’: “Once a delegation of Abdul Qays came to Allah’s Apostle and said, ‘We belong to such and such branch of the tribe of Rabi’a, and we can only come to you in the Sacred Months. Order us to do something good so that we may take it from you and also invite our people whom we have left behind (at home) to it. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “I command you with four things and I forbid you with four things. I order you to believe in Allah. And do you know what is ῑmān in Allah? [It is] to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and I am the Messenger of Allah and to offer prayers perfectly, and to pay zakat, and to give the khumus. And I forbid you from dubba and hantam and muqaytat and naqir (all these are utensils used for the preparation of alcoholic drinks).’” [Agreed upon]

Scholars have differed over the relationship between these two terms, as follows:

First Opinion: The Two Terms are Synonymous

This is the opinion of: Al Bukhari, also ibn Mandah and Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwadhi. Their evidence was the fact that the two seem to refer to the same reality. They seemed to be used interchangeably. Imam Bukhari says that at the end of the hadeeth, the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said that this was Jibreel who came to teach you the religion, and the religion is composed of both simultaneously; therefore, they are the same. – Hadith of Jibreel – Dhariyat: 35-36. Allah (subhanahu wata’ala) is talking about the people of Lut.

Second Opinion: Islam signifies the shahadah and ῑmān signifies outward actions and inner beliefs

This was the opinion of another group, such as al-Zuhri, Hammad b. Zayd, and also reported from Imam Ahmad – Verse of Hujurat. The bedouin has outwardly shown himself to be Muslim, but inwardly ῑmān has not entered the heart. ῑmān is the inner belief accompanied by actions. According to Al Zuhri, the bedouins were political believers because it was advantageous for them to accept Islam. Their hearts had not yet truly formed beliefs about Islam. Hadith of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas: “Allah’s Apostle distributed (zakat) amongst (a group of) people while I was sitting there but Allah’s Apostle left a man whom I thought the best of the lot. I asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! Why have you left that person? By Allah, I am sure he is a mu’min.” The Prophet commented: “Or merely a Muslim.” I remained quiet for a while, but could not help repeating my question because of what I knew about him. Then the Prophet said, “O Sa’d! I give to a person while another is dearer to me, for fear that he might be thrown on his face in the Fire by Allah.’” [Al Bukhari]  Scholars interpreted this to mean that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) realized that giving money would harm the person in an ῑmān sense. The point is that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) differentiated between ῑmān and Islam. They say that these people were hypocrites and may have given the testimony (outward) but do not have ῑmān in their hearts.

  Third Opinion: Synonymous at times, different at times

  This is the standard definition of ahl as sunnah wa al jama’ah. ῑmān and Islam are sometimes synonymous and sometimes different. Both previous opinions are valid in certain contexts.